Rectal cancer venous invasion
Telocyte - a particular cell phenotype. Infrastructure, relationships and putative functions Nicolae Mirancea Here we review on the infrastructure, relationships and putative role of a new cell phenotype termed telocyte. Ultrastructural and immunochemical characteristics of telocytes, their identification in different tissues, homo- and heterocellular telocyte s contacts and considerations concerning their putative role in normal as well as pathological conditions are largely presented. In this respect, we report about a body of evidence that endoneurial fibroblasts dendritic cells share some infrastructural characteristics with telocyte phenotype. Telocytes involvement in pathology, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is also debated.
For quite some time, anal canal cancer rectal cancer was not regarded as an individual pathology, but it was seen, instead, as a form of rectal cancer. The limit between the rectum and the anal canal was set as the anorectal line dentate line.
Thus, the anatomical anal canal is located between the dentate line rectal cancer venous invasion and the anocutaneous line distally.
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In practice, upon the rectal touch, the anal canal is longer and it also includes the transitional cylindrical epithelium area located above the dentate line, the so-called surgical anal canal. The surgical anal canal is the predilect anal canal cancer location region.
Tumours located distally from the anocutaneous line are classified as perianal skin tumours. Pathology and Anatomy of the Anal Cancer: Because the anal canal structure hosts several types of epithelium flat polystratified, transitional epithelium, cylindrical epithelium of the rectum and glandular epithelium of the anal glands there are several types of tumours epidermoid, mucoepidermoid, adenocarcinoma.
5x5 Rectal Cancer Treatment Protocol - Q&A
The most frequently encountered anal canal and perianal region tumours are epidermoid tumours. They are frequent in the population above 50 years of age, but more often in women.
Anal Cancer Clinical Presentation: The symptoms are present even in the incipient stages of the disease. Symptoms such as: pain during or after defecation; bleeding; the sensation of foreign body in the anal or perianal canal; perianal pruritus itching ; unfinished stool sensation; are present almost constantly, from the very onset of the disease.
The fact that the symptoms are present from an incipient stage is explained by the rich anal canal innervation. The pain intensifies in time, as the mass increases in size. The tumoral invasion in the sphincter leads to its destruction and to the appearance of the anal incontinence.
The invasion in the posterior wall of the vagina causes rectovaginal fistula. In men, the prostate and urethra invasion causes dysuria.
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Anal Cancer Symptoms The anal canal cancer symptoms are not specific and they are often interpreted as a benign anal canal pathology manifestation.
Pain during or after defecation.
In all cases in which there are suspicions, the rectal exploration, the anoscopy or the rectosigmoidoscopy with the biopsy of the tumour mass or suspected area are indicated. The palpation of the inguinal areas is recommended and, in case the lymph nodes are enlarged, they should be biopsied.
How Is Anal Cancer Treated? Clear treatment principles are currently available.
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Colonoscopy accompanied by biopsy is the first step, as it provides the clear proof of the cancerous pathology. Once the rectal cancer diagnosis was set, the oncologist sets the suitable treatment protocol, which, in principle, starts rectal cancer venous invasion ionizing radiation therapy, in combination with chemotherapy or not.
The second stage of the surgical treatment then follows, which supposes the excision of the tumour and of the concerned large intestine segment. The lower resection limits have dropped a lot, i. LaurusMedical Appointments.